Getting Started

Samza SQL

Table Of Contents


Samza SQL allows you to define your stream processing logic declaratively as a a SQL query. This allows you to create streaming pipelines without Java code or configuration unless you require user-defined functions (UDFs).

Code Examples

The Hello Samza SQL examples demonstrate how to use Samza SQL API.

  • The filter demonstrates filtering and insert Samza SQL job.

  • The Case-When shows how to use CASE WHEN statement, along with UDF to identify qualifying events.

  • The join demonstrates how to peform a stream-table join. Please note that join operation is currently not fully cooked, and we are actively working on stabilizing it.

  • The group by show how to do group by. Similar to Join, Group By is being actively stabilized.

Key Concepts

Each Samza SQL job consists of one or more Samza SQL statements. Each statement represents a single streaming pipeline.

SQL Representation

Support for SQL internally uses Apache Calcite, which provides SQL parsing and query planning. The query is automatically translated to Samza’s high level API and runs on Samza’s execution engine.

The mapping from SQL to the Samza’s high level API is a simple deterministic one-to-one mapping. For example, Select, i.e., projections, maps to a filter operation, while from maps to a scan(s) and join(s) - if selecting from multiple streams and tables - operators, and so on.

The table below lists the supported SQL operations.

Operation Syntax hints Comments
FILTERING WHERE expression See SQL Grammar below
UDFs udf_name(args) In both SELECT and WHERE clause
JOIN [LEFT/RIGHT] JOIN .. ON .. Stream-table inner, left- or right-outer joins. Currently not fully stable.
AGGREGATION COUNT ( …) .. GROUP BY Currently only COUNT is supported, using processing-time based window.

SQL Grammar

Samza SQL’s grammar is a subset of capabilities supported by Calcite’s SQL parser.

  |   insert
  |   query 

  | {

      ( INSERT | UPSERT ) INTO tablePrimary
      [ '(' column [, column ]* ')' ]

  { * | projectItem [, projectItem ]* }
  FROM tableExpression
  [ WHERE booleanExpression ]
  [ GROUP BY { groupItem [, groupItem ]* } ]

  expression [ [ AS ] columnAlias ]
  | tableAlias . *

  tableReference [, tableReference ]*
  | tableExpression [ NATURAL ] [ LEFT | RIGHT | FULL ] JOIN tableExpression [ joinCondition ]

  ON booleanExpression
  | USING '(' column [, column ]* ')'

  [ [ AS ] alias [ '(' columnAlias [, columnAlias ]* ')' ] ]

  [ TABLE ] [ [ catalogName . ] schemaName . ] tableName

  VALUES expression [, expression ]*


In addition to existing SQL logical operations, Samza SQL allows the user to extend its functionality by running user-code through User Defined Functions (UDFs) as part of the Stream processing pipeline corresponding to the SQL.

UDF Polymorphism

Since UDF’s execute method takes an array of generic objects as parameter, Samza SQL UDF framework is flexible enough to support polymorphic udf functions with varying sets of arguments as long as UDF implementations support them.

For example in the below sql statement, UDF will be passed an object array of size 2 with first element containing id of type
“LONG” and second element name of type “String”. The type of the objects that are passed depends on the type of those fields in Samza SQL message format.

select myudf(id, name) from identity.profile

Known Limitations

Samza SQL only supports simple stateless queries including selections and projections. We are actively working on supporting stateful operations such as aggregations, windows and joins.